The Fluid Science Energy Losses in Hydraulic Systems Straight Pipe Tray includes experiments to measures the pressure drop across expansion and contraction and an internal artificially roughened pipe. All except the stepped pipe test section are of the same cross section, enabling meaningful comparisons to be made. The additional energy losses due to the geometry of the flow path can be clearly seen at different flow rates and the relationship to theory can be established.

Energy Losses in Straight Pipes (FS-1.2)